Plain Language Summary

For modeling atmospheric chemistry, it is necessary to provide data on emissions of pollutants. These can come from various sources and in various forms, and preprocessing of the data to be ingestible by chemistry models can be quite challenging. We developed the FUME processor to use a database layer that internally transforms all input data into a rigid structure, facilitating further processing to allow for emission processing from the continental to the street scale.

The organic vapor condensation with water vapor (co-condensation) in rising air below clouds is modeled in this work over the boreal forest where the air is rich in organic vapors. We show that the number of cloud droplets can increase by 20 % if considering co-condensation. The enhancements are even larger if the air contains many small, naturally produced aerosol particles. Such conditions are most frequently met in spring in the boreal forest.

Light-absorbing atmospheric particles (e.g. black carbon – BC) exert a warming effect on the Arctic climate. We show that the amount of particle light absorption decreased from 2002 to 2023. We conclude that in addition to reductions in emissions of BC, wet removal plays a role in the long-term reduction of BC in the Arctic, given the increase in surface precipitation experienced by air masses arriving at the site. The potential impact of biomass burning events is shown to have increased.



Plain Language Summary

Impact of desert dust on new particle formation
events and the cloud condensation nuclei budget in dust-influenced areas

Casqero-Vera et al. (2023)

This is the first study of the effect of mineral dust on the inhibition/promotion of new particle formation (NPF) events in different dust-influenced areas. Unexpectedly, the research shows that the occurrence of NPF events is highly frequent during mineral dust outbreaks, occurring even during extreme dust outbreaks. It also shows that the occurrence of NPF events during mineral dust outbreaks significantly affects the potential cloud condensation nuclei budget.

A Green Sahara with enhanced rainfall and larger vegetation cover existed in northern Africa about 6000 years ago. Biosphere–atmosphere interactions are found to be critical to explaining this wet period. Based on modeled vegetation reconstruction data, dust emissions and aerosol formation are simulated, which are key factors in biosphere–atmosphere interactions. The results also provide a benchmark of aerosol climatology for future paleo-climate simulation experiments.

Atmospheric aerosols, clouds, and precipitation play a significant role in Earth’s temperature regulation and air quality. While clouds and precipitation help remove particles from the atmosphere, recent research suggests rain could also introduce new particles. However, the extent of this particle source and its impact on climate are still unknown. This study analyzes years of observational data from clean environments and discovered that after precipitation, new particles were sometimes added to the surface atmosphere. The findings highlight the importance of considering how clouds and rain recycle particles when studying air quality and climate.

Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) form secondary organic aerosol that affects air quality and health. This study demonstrates that in a moderately polluted city with abundant vegetation, the composition of HOMs is largely controlled by the effect of NOx on the biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation. Comparing the results from two nearby stations, the results show that HOM composition and formation pathways can change considerably within small distances in urban environments.

Things are not always as they first seem in ambient aerosol measurements. Observations of decreasing particle sizes are often interpreted as resulting from particle evaporation. This paper shows that such observations can counter-intuitively be explained by particles that are constantly growing in size. This requires one to account for the previous movements of the observed air. Our explanation implies a larger number of larger particles, meaning more significant effects of aerosols on climate and health.

Substantial advances have been made in recent years toward detecting and quantifying methane super-emitters from space. However, such advances have rarely been expanded to measure the global methane pledge because large-scale swaths and high-resolution sampling have not been coordinated. Here we present a versatile spaceborne architecture that can juggle planet-scale and plant-level methane retrievals, challenge official emission reports, and remain relevant for stereoscopic measurements.